JULY 25 IN HISTORY
July 25 is the 206th day of 2013. There are 159 days left in the year.
1866: Ulysses S. Grant was named General of the Army of the United States, the first officer to hold the rank.
1898: The United States invaded Puerto Rico during the Spanish-American War.
1909: French aviator Louis Bleriot became the first person to fly an airplane across the English Channel, traveling from Calais to Dover in 37 minutes.
1943: Benito Mussolini was dismissed as premier of Italy by King Victor Emmanuel III and placed under arrest. However, Mussolini was later rescued by the Nazis and re-asserted his authority.
1946: The United States detonated an atomic bomb near Bikini Atoll in the Pacific in the first underwater test of the device.
1952: Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth of the United States.
1956: The Italian liner Andrea Doria collided with the Swedish passenger ship Stockholm off the New England coast late at night and began sinking; at least 51 people were killed.
1960: A Woolworth's store in Greensboro, N.C., that had been the scene of a sit-in protest against its whites-only lunch counter dropped its segregation policy.
1963: The United States, the Soviet Union and Britain initialed a treaty in Moscow prohibiting the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, in space or underwater. The treaty was formally signed on August 5, 1963.
1978: Louise Joy Brown, the first "test tube baby," was born in Oldham, England; she'd been conceived through the technique of in-vitro fertilization.
1984: Soviet cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya became the first woman to walk in space as she carried out more than three hours of experiments outside the orbiting space station Salyut 7.
1992: Opening ceremonies were held in Barcelona, Spain, for the Summer Olympics.
2000: A New York-bound Air France Concorde crashed outside Paris shortly after takeoff, killing all 109 people on board and four people on the ground; it was the first-ever crash of the supersonic jet.
2003: President George W. Bush ordered U.S. troops into position off the coast of Liberia to support the arrival of a West African peacekeeping force, as renewed violence in the capital brought despairing pleas for American help.
2008: An oxygen tank exploded aboard a Qantas Boeing 747-400, ripping a hole in the fuselage and forcing an emergency landing in the Philippines. Computer science professor Randy Pausch, whose "last lecture" about facing terminal cancer became an Internet sensation and a best-selling book, died in Chesapeake, Va. at age 47. The Federal Communications Commission formally approved Sirius Satellite Radio Inc.'s $3.3 billion buyout of rival XM Satellite Radio Holdings Inc. California became the first state to ban trans fats from restaurant food.
2012: President Barack Obama embraced some degree of control on the sale of weapons but also told the National Urban League in New Orleans he would also seek a national consensus on combating violence. NBC announced it had topped the $1 billion mark in advertising sales for the upcoming Olympic Games in London, topping the $850 million in ad sales for the Beijing games in 2008.
Rock musician Jim McCarty (The Yardbirds) (70), rock musician Verdine White (Earth, Wind & Fire) (62), model Iman (58), rock musician Thurston Moore (Sonic Youth) (55), actress Illeana Douglas (48), actor Matt LeBlanc (46), actor Jay R. Ferguson ("Mad Men") (39).